胡说八道第二弹之狙击箴言

叫兽以前就“狙击箴言”写过一篇深入浅出的科普文,让当时还是小白(现在也是小白)的我受益匪浅。暑假闲的无聊,于是又把原文找来了看了看,发个帖,就当是科(jing)普(yan)了。
Sniper Truths
By: Michael Haugen
The following are some truths concerning sniping that have been misused and misquoted over time. Some of these may bring hostility from some.Keep in mind that some of these may fall into opinion, however most are fact.

1.Kims Game does NOT stand for Keep In Memory System. The name comes from a book by the same name written byRudyard Kipling. The book is about a young orphan boy named Kim who is half-English and half-Indian living in India. Heis recruited by British intelligence to act as a spy. In the book Kim is taught how to increase his memory by being showna number of gems for a short time and then being asked what they were, their color, and worth. The account in the bookis more detailed but this is the concept. The British adopted this game and subsequently so did the Americans.

2. A gas gun is NOT better than a bolt gun. They are two different systems. Either is as good as the other, however bolt gunsare inherently more reliable while gas guns are inherently faster.

3..50 caliber Sniper Weapons Systems (current US Military systems) CANNOT routinely hit human targets at 2000 plusyards. The fifty is used against material and hardened targets. Current weapons systems with current available ammunition are not sub-minute capable. Consider that the round itself is ? inch in diameter to start with.

4.Military snipers CANNOT routinely make cold bore head shots at 1000 meters. This is not to say that it hasn’t happened,but it is not a routine occurrence with 7.62mm SWS. Under standard conditions, the .308 goes subsonic at around 975meters. The human head is under 1 moa at 1000 meters.

5. Field SWS CANNOT hold 0.5MOA at 1000 meters (5 inches approx.). Although several manufacturers make this claim, thereare very few shooters who could hold this standard and even fewer are in the military.

楼主 食魇猫  发布于 2013-07-06 21:58:00 +0800 CST  
6.1/4 moa Sniper Weapons Systems do NOT exist. Guns that are capable of this extreme accuracy are found on the benchusing carefully hand-loaded ammunition.

7.The Leupold M3 Ultra is NOT a ?mil dot scope. It has ?minute round (Army) dots.

8..308 or 7.62mm x 51mm NATO is actually more useful out to 600 – 800 meters then a 300 Winchester Magnum. Of coursethe 300 WM. flies faster and can help in bucking winds, but when combined with the training requirements and availability the .308 becomes the caliber of choice for military snipers.

9.Iron sights should be available on every SWS. Should the optics become damaged the sniper should have a back up system. There are times in combat when iron sights would be quicker and more useful than optics.

10.Most sniper missions do NOT include a ghille-clad stalk. Trained snipers will use the available terrain to mask their movement and provide them with concealment. Ghille suits are bulky and hard to use in combat.

楼主 食魇猫  发布于 2013-07-06 21:58:00 +0800 CST  
11. Most sniper missions do NOT require a long stalk to take a shot at one pre-identified target. The vast majority of militarysniper missions place snipers in static locations for days waiting for targets of opportunity. A sniper’s first mission priority is gathering intelligence, shooting is second.

楼主 食魇猫  发布于 2013-07-06 22:00:00 +0800 CST  
13.Shooting tracers through a sniper rifle does NOT ruin the barrel through the burning of the tracer materials, the tracer doesn’t light until it exits the barrel. The jacket is very hard on tracer, which will leave a heavy residue, but can be removed asany copper fouling.

14.JB bore cleaner does NOT harm the barrel. JB is a fine grit and it would require an extreme amount of lapping inorder to harm a stainless steel barrel.

15.The screw in the trigger shoe of the M24 does NOT adjust trigger pressure (as the manual indicates). This screw is theresult of the Army contract, which called for an adjustable trigger. The trigger is set at the factory at approximately 4.5pounds. The screw which has a spring behind it WILL increase the pressure, but will never lessen it beyond the factorysetting. The trigger is a Remington M700 trigger with an additional screw in the shoe period. In fact, the sear adjustmentscrew is staked at the factory (unlike the commercial M700) so that soldiers cannot adjust it.

16.Regardless of how capable a sniper is (military), he should always take torso shots. Snipers should train to take headshotsat 400 yards/meters and closer but in combat torso shots are preferable due to target unpredictability. I am not saying thatheadshots are never to be taken, I am saying that snipers should be trained to make the best decision for the moment.

17..223 (5.56mm) IS an effective sniper caliber, especially in an urban area and using SS109 ammunition. The steel Penetratordoes very well against glass and light obstacles. With the addition of 77 grain Open Tip Match, 5.56 systems are even moreviable now than ever.

18. Mil Dots do NOT stand for military dots. It stands for Milliradian dots.

19. The ONLY way to become proficient at sniper skills is to practice ALL aspects. If I had two guys of which only one I couldmake a sniper; one was an excellent shot but not good in the woods and the other was extremely good in the woods butcould not shoot very well. I would chose the second guy because he can learn to shoot much easier than the other guy canlearn field craft.

20.Counter Sniper is a mission NOT a position. You are either a sniper or you are not. If you are hunting another sniper thenyou are conducting a counter sniper mission. It is highly doubtful that hunting other snipers will be the limits of your duties.

楼主 食魇猫  发布于 2013-07-06 22:03:00 +0800 CST  
不知道为什么,第12段老是说有什么不和谐的东西不给发。
那就不发英文了。

楼主 食魇猫  发布于 2013-07-06 22:04:00 +0800 CST  
以下是翻译,本人英文渣军事水平更渣,如有翻译不对或不当请提出。

下面是一些关于狙击的箴言,它们会纠正一些在过去误传的谣言和缪论。其中一些也许会招来一些人的敌意。请记住,这些箴言可能会有人质疑,但大多数都是真的。

1.KIMS游戏不代表速记系统(KIMS——KEEP IN MEMORY SYSREM)。这个名字来源于Rudyard Kipling的小说的主人公的名字。这部小说讲述了一个生活在印度一半英国血统一半印度血统的年轻孤儿。他被英国情报机构招募成了一个间谍。书里KIM被教导如何增加记忆力。情报人员向他展示宝石然后迅速收起,再问他它们是什么,颜色和价值。书中解释的更加详细但这只是一个概念。英国人接受了这个游戏并把它教给童子军然后他们顺理成章的以为美国人也这样。(事实上不是)

2.半自动步枪所以并不比手动步枪更好。这是两种不同的狙击系统。每种都有自己的优点。然而手动步枪先天更可靠半自动步枪先天射速更快。

3..50口径狙击系统不能在2000多码外击中人体大小目标。.50口径是用来对付装备和硬目标的。目前的武器系统使用的弹药不能保证时时可靠。

4.军队狙击手不能保证在1000米冷膛爆头,不是说这事没发生过,只是用M24 SWS可不是个简单的事。在标准条件下,.308子弹在975米后会下降到亚音速。在1000米人的脑袋要小于1角分。

5.野战狙击系统不能保证在1000米还保持0.5 MOA的精度。尽管有人声称能做到,但只有极少数人能真正做到,而军人更少。

6.1/4 MOA的狙击系统是不存在的。能达到这种极限精度的这种枪只能在bench rest比赛找到并且使用用心装填的手装弹药。

7.这一条有些含糊不清,而在他的另一篇文章有提到,所以我下次再解释。

8..308WIN(7.62NATO)在600米到800米的表现要比.300WM表现更好。当然,.300WM子弹初速更快抗风性也更好,但是结合到训练装备,.308才是军队狙击手的选择口径(应该是弹药通用性的问题,陆军狙击手训练使用的是.308WIN,对这种弹道更加熟悉)

9.每个狙击系统都要有机械瞄具。光瞄有时会干扰狙击手,狙击手需要有个后备瞄具。一些战斗中显示机械瞄具瞄准更快,比光瞄更有用。

10.大多数狙击用不着吉利服。受训丰富的狙击手会用可利用的地形来遮掩他们的动作并隐藏自己。吉利服太笨重,在战斗中很难用到。

11.大多数狙击任务不会要求对既定目标做超远距离射击。多数军队狙击手任务是在既定位置潜伏数天寻找机会。狙击手的首要任务是情报收集,射击是第二位的。

楼主 食魇猫  发布于 2013-07-06 22:09:00 +0800 CST  
13.狙击步枪在指示重要目标(如反狙击)时使用曳光弹不会损伤枪管。曳光弹飞出枪管燃烧剂才会燃烧。曳关弹的被甲很硬,会留下很重的碎屑,但是可以像一般铜渣一样清理掉。

14.使用JB清洗剂不会损伤枪管(别问我为毛叫这名,我甚至去amazon看了下,就是没找到这货全称,好像这个牌子的清洗剂还挺好用,如果有人知道全称请告诉我)JB是很好的研磨砂,只有过分抛光才会伤害不锈钢管。

15.M24扳机上的调节装置不能像手册指示那样调节扳机力。那玩意是是陆军采购合同的产物,叫什么可调节扳机。扳机力是出厂固定的4.5磅,扳机调节在扳机后面有个弹簧来增加扳机力,但是绝不会减少。M24的扳机就是雷明顿M700的扳机上加一个扳机调节。但事实上击发阻铁调节装置是出厂设定好的(不像民用M700)所以战士根本无法调节。

16.别管一个狙击手有多屌,他通常射击的是躯干而非头部。狙击手们被训练在400码或400米或更近爆头,但在战斗中对于动来动去的目标射击躯干才是更好的选择。我不是说永远别爆头,我只是说狙击手应该知道在一瞬间做出更准确的选择。

17..223是很好的狙击口径,尤其是在使用SS109的城市。钢芯可以很好的对付玻璃和轻装甲。77格令弹头的开尖比赛弹(指MK262)让5.56狙击系统如虎添翼。

18.密位点不代表军用划分点,只代表毫弧度划分点。

19.胜任狙击手的唯一方法就是练习所有狙击方面技巧。如果有两个小伙子让我训练其中一个作为狙击手,一个是个射击天才但对丛林没打过交道;而另一个是个丛林王但射击差一点。我会选择第二个,因为学射击要比学野外生存技能简单多了。

20.反狙击是个任务而不是位置。不管你是不是狙击手,只要你带逮到另一个狙击手你就是在反狙击。猎杀另一个狙击手对一个狙击手来说是件很难的任务。

叫兽在博客里写的更加深入直观,地址就不给了大家知道。就这些

楼主 食魇猫  发布于 2013-07-06 22:10:00 +0800 CST  
第十二条无论是英文还是中文都发不了,真是无语。那就说简单点,就是战斗中可以用M852这种开尖比赛弹。因为日内瓦条约禁止的是空尖弹,而M852这种是开尖弹。一般的子弹是将弹芯挤入被甲,而像MK262,MK118等这种高精度子弹为了减少子弹弹头形变提高重量一致性是将被甲从下到上包裹在弹芯上的,所以在顶端会有个小开孔没合拢。美国人说这不是空尖弹只能算是开尖弹。

楼主 食魇猫  发布于 2013-07-06 22:13:00 +0800 CST  

楼主:食魇猫

字数:7582

发表时间:2013-07-07 05:58:00 +0800 CST

更新时间:2021-02-23 17:43:45 +0800 CST

评论数:24条评论

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